Nicolas Sarkozy wants to initiate a referendum in France on the situation of foreigners. Among these foreigners, one target: the Rroms people. What about their immigration in France today ? The government spoke of a flood. In fact, for decades, immigration of Rroms in France remained stable (Ministery of Interior). The only thing that has changed are their visibility and pressure orchestrated by a racist government against them, dramatically altering their conditions of life in French territory and the modes of their trip ...
The essay writed by Martin Oliviera, published in conference proceedings of the association Emmaus/Normal Sup is interesting to think their situation.
Analyzing the social structure of Rroms migrants, Martin Oliviera shows that it is comparable to other rural emigration. Migration of very diverse groups that can not be conveniently subsumed (as the french governement act it) under the common name of Rroms. Because there is no homogeneity of these migrants, coming from local migrations, that we can understand as part of village-city mobility. A migration comparable to the migration of this type: with hope of return, which is the case with all economic migration which make sense in the context of individual or family strategies.
The locations for these migrations are clearly established around Paris or Lyon, for good reasons: the experiences accumulated by previous migrants refer to these as interesting regions, in terms of job opportunities as well as the safety of persons.
But with the rise of racist violence against these people, since 2006 in France, these stays inside the French territory change : migrants can identify racist risks, as well as areas where zealous policeman is strongest. These redeployments, desperate, are the real novelty of the migration of Rroms in France. Populations however, continue to hope their social integration ! Because these families want to integrate, find ways of legal economic life, starting with housing. But this desire for stability is perpetually thwarted by restricts of their freedom (in violation of European laws), as their access to the French market for employment or social rights -France has succeeded in putting in the European Treaty a clause known as "transient", authorizing such discrimination.
Their access to legal resources now seriously complicated this immigration, turning it into a real trap for the Rroms. Seen for example in their current mobility, very different from what it was before the arrival of Nicolas Sarkozy: Rroms move inside a very small perimeters, not exceeding 10km... We have seen better, no, as a nomadic!
Turning desperately in these schemes which are for them consolidation groups, forced mobility of these groups and makes them appear more numerous than they are. First observation: this nomadism forced by political circumstances did in fact an adaptation to a hostile environment, not an ideal of life! And about the caravans, they are only a type of habitat selected by a lower cost by populations forced to remain in constant move, which, in term, exposes them to uncertainty facing with their rights ( how to take up residence in these conditions, how to enroll her children in the nursery, at school, how to get medical help, etc.., when you can not justify your residence ?).
Counteracting the dangers that beset them and this new insecurity that locks them, the Rroms have also had to band together in extended kin, a lifestyle that was foreign to them in Romania! France compels people to invent a lifestyle never traditional... France is reinvouting their life since the permanent problem of expulsions, fomenting ever more precarious housing, which finally take the form of camps, realizing the fantasies of French government...
Roms en (bidon)ville : une conférence-débat de l'Association Emmaüs et de Normale Sup', Martin Oliviera, éditions rue d'Ulm, oct. 2011, 5 euros, 84 pages, ean : 978-2728804665.